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George Makari M.D. is Director of Cornellís Institute for the History of Psychiatry, Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Weill Medical College, and Visiting Associate Professor at Rockefeller University.

Revolution in Mind

The Creation of Psychoanalysis

George Makari

A magisterial study Ö Makariís synthetic grasp is as great as the Freud he describes. In a series of brilliant potted portraits, he delineates the often contradictory contributions of a score of psychoanalystsThe Financial Times

By far the best intellectual history of psychoanalysis yet written ... It does not matter whether you are a believer in psychoanalysis or a detractor, or merely interested in the flow of science and medicine in the past 150 years, Revolution of Mind is a brilliant book that will capture your interestThe Lancet

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Winner of the National Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis' 2009 Gradiva Award for best historical work and the 2009 Heinz Hartmann Award of the New York Psychoanalytic Society for most outstanding publication

Based on new archival materials and a decade of research, Revolution in Mind is a radically new history of psychoanalysis. It tells the story of the birth, development, and death of psychoanalysis in Europe between 1870 and 1945, integrating these chapters into a coherent narrative for the first time.

How did Freudian Theory come together as a body of ideas, and how did these ideas attract followers who spread this model of mind throughout the West? Makari contextualises Freud’s early psychological work amid the great changes occurring in late-nineteenth-century European science, philosophy, and medicine, showing how Freud was a creative, inter-disciplinary synthesizer whose immersion in pre-existing domains of study led to the creation of Freudian Theory. He looks at how Freud’s followers built a heterogeneous movement in the years leading to 1914, at the growth of the movement, and its subsequent collapse with the departures of Bleuler, Jung, and Adler. Finally, Makari examines the critical, but neglected, Weimar period, when there was an attempt to rebuild a more pluralistic psychoanalytic community. This reformation resulted in the broader theoretical reach of psychoanalysis and its greater acceptance across the Western world outside Europe, where the rise of fascism was to lead to the destruction of psychoanalysis and the culture that once sustained it.