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George Makari M.D. is Director of Cornell’s Institute for the History of Psychiatry, Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Weill Medical College, and Visiting Associate Professor at Rockefeller University. He lives in New York City.

Revolution in Mind

The Creation of Psychoanalysis

George Makari

A magisterial study … Makari’s synthetic grasp is as great as the Freud he describes. In a series of brilliant potted portraits, he delineates the often contradictory contributions of a score of psychoanalystsThe Financial Times

By far the best intellectual history of psychoanalysis yet written ... It does not matter whether you are a believer in psychoanalysis or a detractor, or merely interested in the flow of science and medicine in the past 150 years, Revolution of Mind is a brilliant book that will capture your interestThe Lancet

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A masterful history of one of the most important movements of our time, Revolution in Mind is a brilliant, engaging, and radically new work – the first ever to fully account for the making of psychoanalysis.

Based on new archival materials and a decade of research, Revolution in Mind tells the story of the birth, development, and death of psychoanalysis in Europe between 1870 and 1945, integrating these chapters into a coherent narrative for the first time. Along the way Makari introduces the reader to a fascinating array of characters, many of whom have been long ignored or forgotten.

Makari contextualises Freud’s early psychological work amid the great changes occurring in late-19th century European science, philosophy, and medicine, showing how Freud emerged as a creative, inter-disciplinary synthesizer whose immersion in pre-existing domains of study led to the creation of Freudian theory. His allies included Eugen Bleuler, Carl Jung, and Alfred Adler, all of whom eventually broke away and accused the Freudian community of being unscientific. Makari reveals how in the wake of these crises, innovators like Sándor Ferenczi, Wilhelm Reich, Melanie Klein and others, reformed psychoanalysis, which began to gain wide acceptance only to be banished from the continent and sent into exile with the rise of fascism.

Groundbreaking, insightful, and compulsively readable, Revolution in Mind goes beyond myth and polemic to give us the story of one of the most controversial intellectual endeavours of the twentieth century.